Volume 8, Issue 2, March 2020, Page: 37-40
Analysis of Some Heavy Metal Contents in Selected Vegetables and Fruits from States in Nigeria
Theophilus Ohiomorhen Iriabije, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Sylvester Uwadiae, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Received: Oct. 9, 2019;       Accepted: Nov. 15, 2019;       Published: May 19, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20200802.12      View  17      Downloads  15
The consumption of fruits and vegetables is on the increase as these produce have nutritive values associated to the presence of essential metals that helps boost humans’ immune system, thus, avoiding health problems. However, there is also the presence of some non-essential metals in fruits and vegetables that are detrimental to humans. This study was carried out in order to determine the concentrations of some potentially toxic heavy metals namely; Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn) in some leafy vegetables namely; cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Cucurbita lanatus), tomatoe (Solantum lycopersium) and pepper (Capsicum annuum), brought from Kano state as well as those cultivated in Edo state. 25 samples consisting of 4 different vegetables were each purchased from two major markets known to be a major depot for vegetables in Benin City as well as those produced in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Edible portions of the samples were used for analysis while bruised or rotten samples were removed. Samples for analysis were dried using the oven-dry method at 105°C for 24 hours to obtain the moisture content and then grounded. About 1.0g of the samples were each weighed and digested in a mixture of 10mls Nitric – Perchloric acid in a 250 ml Kjeldahl flask under a fume hood. The content was mixed and heated gently at 120 - 200°C for about 45 minutes on a hot plate. Heavy metals were present in all the vegetables analyse at various levels. Cadmium (Cd) concentration ranges between 0.02 – 0.47 mgkg-1, Lead (Pb) was within the range of 0.03 – 11.12 mgkg-1, Zinc (Zn) concentration ranges between 0.15 – 73.69 mgkg-1, and Nickel (Ni) concentration ranges between 0.07 – 35.54 mgkg-1 respectively in all the vegetables from the two states. Cd and Pb were observed to be higher than that of the Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL) stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Vegetables, Heavy Metal Concentration, Maximum Permissible Limits, AAS
To cite this article
Theophilus Ohiomorhen Iriabije, Sylvester Uwadiae, Analysis of Some Heavy Metal Contents in Selected Vegetables and Fruits from States in Nigeria, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2020, pp. 37-40. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20200802.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Akan, J. C., Kolo, B. G., Yikala, B. S. and Ogugbuaja, V. O., (2013). Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Vegetable Samples from Biu Local Government Area, Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, Vol. 1, No. 2 (2013), pp. 40-46.
Abdulmojeed, L. O. and Abdulrahman, A. A., (2011). Analysis of heavy metals found in vegetables from some cultivated irrigated gardens in the Kano metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Vol. 3 (6) (2011), pp. 142-148.
Gabriel C. C. Ndinwa, Anislt M., C. O. Chukumah, M. Mirsm, K. I. Obarakpor, E. A. Edafe and W. E. Morka. (2014). Determination of Heavy Metals in Tomatoe (Solanum Lycopersicum) Leaves, Fruits and Soil samples collected from Asaba Metropolis, Southern Nigeria. Canadian Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences, 8 (2014), pp. 2715-2720.
Habib, M. N. et al., (2011). Heavy Metal Levels in Vegetables with Growth Stage and Plant Species Variations. Bangladesh J. Agril. Res., 36 (4) (2011), pp. 563-574.
Mohsen, B. and Mohsen, S., (2008). Investigation of Metals Accumulation in Some Vegetables Irrigated with Waste Water in Shahre Rey-Iran and Toxicological Implications. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 86-92 (2008), p. 4 (1).
Nazemi, S., (2012). Concentration of Heavy Metal in Edible Vegetables Widely Consumed in Shahroud, the North East of Iran. J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 2 (8) (2012), pp. 386-391.
Chiroma, T., Ebewele, R. and Hymore, F., (2012). Levels of Heavy Metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe and Cr) in Bushgreen and Roselle Irrigated with Treated and Untreated Urban Sewage Water. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, Vol. 1 (4) (2012), pp. 50-55.
Abdu, N., (2010). Availability, transfer and balances of heavy metals in urban agriculture of West Africa, Germany: Kassel University Press GmbH, Kassel.
Chiroma, T. M., Ebewele, R. O. and Hymore, F., (2014). Comparative Assessement of Heavy Metal Levels in Soil, Vegetables and Urban Grey Waste Water Used For Irrigation in Yola and Kano. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES), Volume 3 (2014), pp. PP. 01-09.
Ibrahim, A. A., Haseeb, K. A., Ali, A. H. A. and Anis, A., (2010). Determination of Cu, Mn, Hg, Pb, and Zn in the Outer Tissue Washings, Outer Tissues and Inner Tissues of Different Vegetables Using ICP-OES. Polish J. of Environ. Stud., Vol. 20, No. 4 (2011), pp. 835-841.
Fernando G., Anderson R. T., Takashi M., Nericlenes C. M., Solange G. C-B, (2012). Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health. Sci. Agric., v. 69, n. 1 (2012), pp. p. 54-60.
Uroko R. I., Victor E. O., Uchenna N. O., Nwuke C. P., Nduka F. O., and Ogbonnaya P., (2019). Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Selected Fruits in Umuahia Market, Nigeria: Associating Toxicity to Effect for Improved Metal Risk Assessment. Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology Vol. 7 (04), pp. 39-45.
Minhaz A., Masaru M., Akinori O., N. Van Thinh, and Kiyoshi K., (2019). Heavy Metal Contamination of Irrigation Water, Soil, and Vegetables and the Difference between Dry and Wet Seasons Near a Multi-Industry Zone in Bangladesh. Water 2019, 11, 583.
Surukite O. O., Olubunmi M. S. C., Kafeelah A. Y., Olusegun O. F., and Ayobami O. Odumosu, (2013). Determination of Heavy Metal Contaminants in Leafy Vegetables Cultivated By the Road Side. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7 (2013), pp. PP. 01-05.
Ogunkunle, A. T. J., Bello, O. S. and Ojofeitimi, O. S., 2014. Determination of heavy metal contamination of street-vended fruits and vegetables in Lagos state, Nigeria. International Food Research Journal, 21 (6) (2014), pp. 2115-2120.
Monika, K., (2012). Investigation of heavy metal content in vegetables in and around Fatehabad city. International Journal of Environmental Biology, 2 (2): (2012), pp. 84-87.
Hseu, Z-Y., (2004). Evaluating Heavy Metal Contents in Nine Composts Using Four Digestion Methods. Bioresource Technology 95 (2004) 53–59.
Nabil R. B., (2011), Sample Preparation for Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Overview, Vol. 4, No. 1 (2011), 49-55, Rasayan Journal Chem.
Techane G., Yadav O. P., Yadav L., (2019). Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic Determination of Some Heavy Metal Contents in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fruit and Water used for Irrigation. Net. J. Agric. Sci., 7 (1): 23-29.
J. Bala Chennaiaha, M. A. Rasheed, and D. J. Patil (2014). Concentration of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water with Emphasis on Human Health. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences. Vol 4, No. 2 (2014), pp 205-214.
Amir H. B., and Mohammad F., (2019). The potential risk of heavy metals on human health due to the daily consumption of vegetables. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal 2019, 6 (1), 11–16.
Laura M. Plum, Lothar Rink and Hajo H., (2010). The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1342-1365; doi: 10.3390/ijerph7041342.
Browse journals by subject