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Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2020, Page: 6-14
Frequency of Merozoite Surface Protein 2 (MSP2) Allelic Families and Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) Resistance Markers Among Pregnant Women in Delta State, Nigeria)
Chiamaka Evan Achu, Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Obioma Chebechi Nwaorgu, Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Chukwudi Michael Egbuche, Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Dorothy Amuche Ezeagwuna, Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria
Olusola Ajibaye, Malaria Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria
Denis Nnanna Aribodor, Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Received: Feb. 8, 2020;       Accepted: Feb. 20, 2020;       Published: Mar. 17, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20200801.12      View  337      Downloads  124
Abstract
Malaria in pregnancy is a public health problem and requires prophylactic treatment with Sulphadoxine–Pyrimethamine (SP) drug. However, the emergence and spread of SP-resistance P. falciparum parasite across Nigeria poses serious threat to the efficacy and effectiveness of this preventive intervention. This study aimed to determine the frequency of MSP2 allelic families and SP resistance molecular markers of P. falciparum among asymptomatic pregnant women in Asaba, Delta State. Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and Microscopy were used to detect malaria parasite infection among the study participants. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to confirm parasitaemia using P. falciparum MSP2 as a marker while Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was used to identify P. falciparum SP-resistance molecular markers at codons 51, 59, 108, 164 of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), and codons 437, 540, 581 and 431 of dihydropteorate synthetase (dhps) genes. The prevalence of malaria from the 410 pregnant women examined at first antenatal registration were 8.29% and 17.07% using RDT and microscopy, respectively (P < 0.05). MSP2 alleles of P. falciparum were confirmed in 43 (61.43%) cases of the microscopy result. Fourteen different MSP2 fragments of the two major allelic families: 3D7 and FC27 were obtained. The allelic frequencies were 52.9% and 15.7% for 3D7 and FC27, respectively, with overlap in 5 cases (P < 0.05). Multiplicity of infection was 1.31. Using RFLP, 47 (67.12%) samples showed polymorphism in at least one codon of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes. In the Pfdhfr gene, C59R and N51I mutations showed the highest (78.72%) and the least (23.4%) prevalence, respectively (P < 0.05). In the Pfdhps gene, A437G and K540E mutations showed the highest (44.68%) and the least (36.17%) prevalence respectively (P > 0.05). Single mutation of C59R in 10 (21.28%) cases was the most prevalent haplotype in the Pfdhfr/Pfdhps genes (P < 0.05). Mutation variations of Pfdhfr/Pfdhps identified were 15 (31.91%) single, 14 (29.79%) double, 13 (27.66%) triple and 5 (10.64%) quadruple with 5, 8, 6 and 3 unique haplotypes, respectively. The study recorded the presence of malaria parasites among the study participants. P. falciparum SP resistant genes were also detected and this may present a challenge in the usefulness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp-SP) in pregnancy.
Keywords
Intermittent Preventive Treatment, Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Plasmodium falciparum, Pregnant Women, Resistance Molecular Markers
To cite this article
Chiamaka Evan Achu, Obioma Chebechi Nwaorgu, Chukwudi Michael Egbuche, Dorothy Amuche Ezeagwuna, Olusola Ajibaye, Denis Nnanna Aribodor, Frequency of Merozoite Surface Protein 2 (MSP2) Allelic Families and Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) Resistance Markers Among Pregnant Women in Delta State, Nigeria), American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2020, pp. 6-14. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20200801.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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