Volume 6, Issue 4, July 2018, Page: 45-51
Isolation, Characterisation, Antibiotic Susceptibility and Molecular Profile of Enterotoxigenic Bacillus Cereus from Fried Soya Bean Cake (Awara)
Farida Ishaq, Department of Microbiology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Yahaya Ocholi, Department of Microbiology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Zakari Ladan, Department of Microbiology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Received: Oct. 24, 2018;       Accepted: Nov. 22, 2018;       Published: Dec. 28, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20180604.11      View  39      Downloads  20
Abstract
A total of one hundred and fifty (150) “awara” samples were collected from different vendors in various parts of Kaduna metropolis and assessed for the presence of Bacillus spp. Three species of Bacillus (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus licheniformis) were isolated on Mannitol Egg-yolk polymyxin Agar plates, characterized and identified from the “awara” samples by conventional method (Biochemical test). The occurrence of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus Licheniformis were 51 (34%), 22 (14.7%) and 13 (8.7%). All the samples tested contained high number of Bacillus spp where Bacillus cereus had the highest number. Statistical analysis using P-Values indicated statistically significant difference (P=0.001) in Kawo and Tudun wada while there was no statistically significant difference in Unguwan dosa (P=0.341). Isolates were found to possess the hblD enterotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus. The enterotoxin producing Bacillus cereus isolates were found to be susceptible to Pefloxacin (10µg), Ciprofloxacin (10µg), Streptomycin (10µg), Septrin (30µg) and Erythromycin (10µg). Resistance was observed against Ampiclox (30µg) while Gentamycin, (10µg), Zinnacef (20µg), Amoxacillin (30µg) and Rocephin (25µg) were found to be less susceptible respectively. All the “awara” samples were highly contaminated with B. cereus probably because its spores were very difficult to be eliminated from food materials by heat treatment. However, any outbreak can be effectively treated using the antibiotics that showed susceptibility.
Keywords
Bacillus cereus, Enterotoxin, Antibacterial Susceptibility, Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index
To cite this article
Farida Ishaq, Yahaya Ocholi, Zakari Ladan, Isolation, Characterisation, Antibiotic Susceptibility and Molecular Profile of Enterotoxigenic Bacillus Cereus from Fried Soya Bean Cake (Awara), American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2018, pp. 45-51. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20180604.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Agwa, O. K., Uzoigwe, C. I. and Wokoma, E. C. (2012). Incidence and antibiotic sensitivity of Bacillius cereus isolated from ready to eat foods sold in some markets in Portharcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Asian journal of microbiology. Biotechnology and environmental science, 14 (1): 13-18.
[2]
Basil A., Abbas Mohammed H. Khudor and Ban M. S. Saeed (2014). Detection of hbl, nhe, and bceT toxin genes in Bacillus cereus isolates by multiplex PCR. Int. journal of current microbiology and applied sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 vol 3 no. 11 (2014) Pp. 1009-1016.
[3]
Catia, A. C. M., Martins, O. B., Clementino, M. M. (2008). Species-level identification of Bacillus Strains isolates from marine sediments by conventional biochemical, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and inter-tRNA gene sequence lengths analysis. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 93:297–304.
[4]
Claire Jenkins, Claire L. Ling, Holly L. Ciesielezuk, Julianne Lockwood, Susan Hopkins, Timothy D. McHugh, Stephen H. Gillespie and Christopher C. Kibbler. (2012). Detection and identification of bacteria in clinical samples by 16SrRNA gene sequencing: Comparism of two different approaches in clinical practice. Journal of Medical Microbiology. (2012), 61, 483-488 Doi 10.1099/jmm.0.030387-0.
[5]
Cheesbrough, M. (2006). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Cambridge University Press p. 434.
[6]
CLSI. (2012). Performance standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Second Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S22. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2012.
[7]
Dufrenne, J., Bijwaard, M., te Giffel, M., Beumer, R. and Notermans, S. (1995). Characteristics of some psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus isolates. International Journal of Food Microbiology 27 (2-3): 175-183.
[8]
Ehirim, J. E., Azubike, M. C, Ubbaonu, C. N., Anyanwu E. C., Ibe, K. M., Obonna, M. O. (2001). Critical control point of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria. Bulletin of the world health organization, 79 (5), 423-435.
[9]
EFSA (2005). The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2010. EFSA Journal, vol 10 (3), pp. 2597, http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2597.htm.
[10]
Fayaz S., Badroo G. A., Ajaz Ahmad, Rasool U., Mustapha R., and Mudasir Mir. (2017). molecular characterization of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus species isolated from meat using conventional PCR and multiplex PCR. Int. j. curr. Microbial. App. Sci. 6 (9): 324-328.
[11]
Frankland, G. C., and P. F. Frankland. (1887). Studies on some new microorgansisms from air. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, biological sciences 173:257-287.
[12]
Guinberetiere M. H., Veronique Broussolle and Christophe Nguyen-the. (2002). Journal of clinical microbiology, Aug 2002, p. 3053-3056.
[13]
Griffiths, M. W. and Schraft, H. (2002). Bacillus cereus food poisoning. pp. 261–270. In Cliver, D. O. and Riemann, H. P. (Eds.). Foodborne Diseases, 2nd edition, Academic Press, SNew York, NY. Granum, P. E. 1994. Bacillus cereus and its toxins. J. Appl. Bacteriol. Symp. Suppl. 76:615-665.
[14]
Helgaison E., Okstad O. A., Caugaut D. A., Johansen H. A., Fouet A., Mock M., Hegna I. and Kolsto A. B. (2000). Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringenesis – one species on the basis of genetic evidence. Appl Environ. 2000 Jun; 66 (6):2627-30.
[15]
Holbrook R. and Anderson J. M. (1980). Can. J. Microbiol., 26 (7) 753-759.
[16]
Kotiranta, A., Lounatmaa, K., Haapasalo, M. (2000). Microbes and infection, 2000-Elsevier. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus infection. Vol 2, issue 2, Pp 189-198. Feb, 2000. Institute of Dentistry, P. O Box 41, FIN- 00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
[17]
Kwaga J. K. P. and Adesiyun A. A. (1984). Antibiograms of Staphylococcus aureus from some ready to eat products. Journal of food protection. November 1984, vol 47, No. 11 Pp 865-867.
[18]
Lopez A. C. and Alippi A. M. (2010). Enterotoxigenic gene profiles of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium isolates recovered from honey. Revista Argentina de microbiologia (2010) 42:216-225.
[19]
Lindbäck, T. and Granum, P. E. (2013). Bacillus cereus. In Labbé, R. G. and García S. (Eds). Guide to Foodborne Pathogens, p. 75-81. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
[20]
Luna, V. A., D. S. King, J. G. Gulledge, A. C. Cannons, P. T. Amuso, and J. Cattani. (2007). Susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis to 24 antimicrobials using Sensititre automated microbial dilution and Etest agar gradient diffusion methods. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60:555-567.
[21]
McKillip J. L. (2000). Prevalence and expression of enterotoxins in B. cereus and other Bacillus spp., a literature review. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2000; 77 (4):393–399.
[22]
Montanhini, M. T. M., Montanhini Neto, R. and Bersot, L. S. (2015). Enterotoxigenic potential of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from dairy products at different incubation temperatures. Int. food research journal 22 (3): 1315-1317 (2015).
[23]
Mohammad Shahriar, M. d. Rashidul Haque, Shaila Kabir, Irin Dewan and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuyiabn. (2011). Effect of Protinsae-k on Genomic DNA Extraction from Gram Positive Strains. Standard journal of pharmaceutical sciences 4 (1): 53-57.
[24]
Okanlawon, B. M., Ogunbanwo, S. T., and okunlola, A. O. (2010). Growth of Bacillus cereus isolated from some traditional condiments under different regiments. Department of biomedical sciences, university of technology, Oyo state and department of botany and microbiology, university of Ibadan, Nigeria.
[25]
Odeyele, O. P., Whong, C. M. Z., Jatau E. D. (2014). Characterization and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Bacillus cereus isolates from fried soya bean cake in Zaria, Nigeria. Scientific journal of microbiology (2014). 3 (4) 38-44.
[26]
Omemu, A. M., and Aderoju, S. T. (2008). Food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in the city of Abeokuta, Nigeria. Food control, 19:396-402.
[27]
Oyeleke, Solomom Bankole., and Manga, Bala Shuaibu. (2008). Essentials of laboratory practicals in microbiology, 1st edition Pp. 20. ISBN NO: 978-2206-69-5.
[28]
Ouoba, L. I. I., Parkouda, C., Diawara, C., Scotti, C., Varnam, A. H. (2007). Identification of Bacillus spp. from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa: phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Journal of Applied Microbiology ISSN 1364-5072.
[29]
Olayisnka, A. T, B. O. Olayinka and B. A. Onile (2004). Antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid pattern of pseudomonas aeruginosa from the surgical unit of a university teaching hospital in north central Nigeria. International journal of medicine and medical.
[30]
Schraft, H. and Griffiths, M. W. (2006). Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis. pp. 561–582. In H. Riemann and D. O. Cliver (Eds). Foodborne Infections and Intoxications, 3rd ed, Academic Press, New York, NY.
[31]
Sahota Parampal, Jairath S., Pandove Gulab and Krishan M. (2008). Emerging food borne pathogens-A review. Asian journal of microbiology and environmental sciences 10 (4): 921-926. January 2008.
[32]
Turnbull, P. C. B., N. M. Sirianni, C. L. LeBron, M. N. Samaan, F. N. Sutton, A. E. Reyes, and L. F. Peruski Jr. (2004). MICs of selected antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides from a range of clinical and environmental sources as determined by Etest. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:3626-3634.
[33]
Tripathi R. Vinayak, Shailendra Kumar and Satyendra K. Garg. (2011). A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus spp. Protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) Syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. Seed extract. The official journal of the international society for complementary medicine research (ISCMP). 2011 11:56.
[34]
Tallent, S. M, K. M. Kotewicz, E. A., Strain and R. W. Bennett. (2012). Efficient isolation and identification of Bacillus cereus group. Journal of AOAC international, 95 (2): 446-451.
[35]
Umar, A. S., Yerima, M. B. and Uzal, U. (2006). Antimicrobial sensitivities of Bacillus cereus isolated from food samples sold in Bauchi metropolis to selected antibiotics. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology. 20 (1), 655-661.
[36]
Ugwu, Celestina Chibuzo. (2009). Isolation and characterization of Bacillus cereus strains from various foods in Nsukka. Department of microbiology, university of Nigeria, Nsukka. March, 2009.
[37]
Weber, D. J., S. M. Saviteer, W. A. Rutala, and C. A. Tomann. (1988). In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:642-645.
[38]
Wijnands L. M., Dufrenne J. B., Rombouts F. M., in 'T Veld P. H., and van Leusden F. M. (2006) Prevalence of potentially pathogenic Bacillus cereus in food commodities in the Netherlands. Journal of Food Protection 69 (11):2587–2594.
[39]
Zhou J., Bruns M. A. and Tiedje J. M. (1996). DNA recovery from soils of diverse composition. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 316-322.
Browse journals by subject