Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2018, Page: 23-34
Optimal Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels for Juvenile Yellowstripe Goby (Mugilogobius Chulae), a Proposed Laboratory Fish
Yuanzheng Wei, Key Laboratory of Guangdong Laboratory Animals, Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute, Guangzhou, China
Jianjun Li, Key Laboratory of Guangdong Laboratory Animals, Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute, Guangzhou, China
Lei Cai, Key Laboratory of Guangdong Laboratory Animals, Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute, Guangzhou, China
Lujun Yu, Key Laboratory of Guangdong Laboratory Animals, Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute, Guangzhou, China
Zongyu Miao, Key Laboratory of Guangdong Laboratory Animals, Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute, Guangzhou, China
Meili Chen, Key Laboratory of Guangdong Laboratory Animals, Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute, Guangzhou, China
Ren Huang, Key Laboratory of Guangdong Laboratory Animals, Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute, Guangzhou, China
Received: May 24, 2018;       Accepted: Jul. 4, 2018;       Published: Aug. 2, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20180602.11      View  613      Downloads  63
Mugilogobius chulae is a small euryhaline or estuarine goby recently proposed as an ideal species for use in ocean environmental toxicology studies. However, the nutritional requirements of M. chulae remain unknown. Eight experimental diets at one of four protein levels (35%, 40%, 45%, or 50%) and two lipid levels (5% or 10%) were formulated to investigate the effects of differing dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth performance, body composition and liver morphological condition of M. chulae. Juvenile gobies (1760 individuals, 0.011±0.001 g fish-1) were randomly allotted to 32 tanks (four replicates of each of the eight treatments) and fed twice a day for 9 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased significantly with increasing dietary protein from 35% to 45% (P< 0.05), and further increases, from 45% to 50%, caused a decline in both of these values. However, WG and SGR were not affected by dietary lipid concentration (P> 0.05). Whole-body crude lipid and linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) contents in juvenile M. chulae increased significantly with increasing dietary lipid content (P< 0.05). Although hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI) did not increased significantly with increasing dietary lipid content (P>0.05), and no pathological changes were observed in the liver, lipase activity significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The dietary protein level driving optimal WG and SGR also led to the highest trypsase activity. Thus, 45% crude protein and 5% lipidis sufficient to ensure good growth performance in juvenile M. chulae, and this diet appears to have no substantial adverse effects.
Mugilogobius chulae, Nutrient Requirement, Optimal Growth, Body Composition, Morphometry, Laboratory Fish
To cite this article
Yuanzheng Wei, Jianjun Li, Lei Cai, Lujun Yu, Zongyu Miao, Meili Chen, Ren Huang, Optimal Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels for Juvenile Yellowstripe Goby (Mugilogobius Chulae), a Proposed Laboratory Fish, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp. 23-34. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20180602.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Kottelat, M., & Whitten, T. (1996). Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi: additions and corrections. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions, 5 pp. (ISBN:962-593-148-1).
Larson, H. K. (2001). A revision of the gobiid fish genus Mugilogobius (Teleostei: Gobioidei), and its systematic placement. Perth: Western Australian Museum, Perth, Western Australia. pp. 109-115. (ISSN: 0313 122X).
Li, J. J., Wu, M. H., Ye, H. X., & Huang, R. (2013). Comparison of the sensitivity of Mugilogobius chulae at different developmental stages to drilling fluid. Chinese Journal of Comparative Medicine (abstract in English), 23, 48-51. (DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2013. 004.011)
Cai, W. C., Chen, X. Q., Li, J. J. & Huang, R. (2014). Effect of waterbased drilling fluid exposure on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in Mugilogobius chulae. Chinese journal of comparative medicine (abstract in English), 24, 16-19. (DOI:10.3969.J.issn. 1671.7856.2014.002.004).
Guo Z., Gao N., Wu Y., & Zhang L. (2017). The simultaneous uptake of dietary and waterborne Cd in gastrointestinal tracts of marine yellowstripe goby Mugilogobius chulae. Environmental Pollution, 223, 31-41. (DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.12.007).
Li, J. J., Chen, X. Q., Lin, Z. T. (2012). Analysis on morphology and growth characteristics of Mugilogobius chulae. Laboratory Animal And Comparative Medicine (abstract in English), 32, 334-340. (DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-5817.2012.04.016).
Cai, L., Huang, R., Yu, L. J., & Li, J. J. (2016). Complete mitochondrial genome of Mugilogobius chulae (Perciformes: Gobiidae). Mitochondrial DNA Part A, 27, 4054-4055. (DOI: 10.3109/19401736.2014.1003840).
Wang, Y., Lin, Z. T., Li, J. J., & Chen, X. Q. (2012). The comparison of feeding effects of Arternia nauplii and formulated feed for Mugilogobius chulae. Hebei Fisheries (abstract in English), 1, 28-30. (DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-6755.2012.01.008
Wei, Y. Z., Lin, Z. T., & Li, J. J. (2016). Effect of dietary nutrient level on the growth and feed utilization of Mugilogobius chulae. Chinese Journal of Comparative Medicine (abstract in English), 26, 29-36. (DOI:10.3969.j.issn.1671.7856.2016.001.006).
O'Brine, T. M., Vrtělová, J., Snellgrove, D. L., Davies, S. J., & Sloman, K. A. (2015). Growth, oxygen consumption, and behavioral responses of Danio rerio to variation in dietary protein and lipid levels. Zebrafish, 12, 296-304. (DOI: 10.1089/zeb. 2014.1008).
Carvalho, A. P., Araújo, L., & Santos, M. M. (2006). Rearing zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae without live food: evaluation of a commercial, a practical and a purified starter diet on larval performance. Aquaculture Research, 37, 1107-1111. (DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2006.01534.x).
Kaushik, S., Georga, L. &Koumoundouros, G. (2011) Growth and body composition of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae fed a compound feed from first feeding onward: toward implications on nutrient requirements. Zebrafish, 8, 87-93. : (DOI:10.1089/zeb.2011.0696)
Kruger, D. P., Britz, P. J., & Sales, J. (2001). Influence of varying dietary protein content at three lipid concentrations on growth characteristics of juvenile swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri Heckel 1848). Aquarium Sciences and Conservation, 3, 275-280. (DOI: 10.1023/A:1013150314719)
Yong, A. S. K., Ooi, S., Shapawi, R., Biswas, A. K., & Kenji, T. (2015). Effects of dietary lipid increments on growth performance, feed utilization, carcass composition and intraperitoneal fat of marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata, juveniles. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 15, 653-660. (DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712 -v15-3-10)
Tng, Y. Y., Wee, N. L., Ip, Y. K., & Chew, S. F. (2008). Postprandial nitrogen metabolism and excretion in juvenile marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Bleeker, 1852). Aquaculture, 284, 260-267. (DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.07.039).
Anh, N. T. N., Wille, M., Van Hoa, N., & Sorgeloos, P. (2011). Potential use of Artemia biomass by-products from Artemia cyst production for the nursing of goby Pseudapocryptes elongatus in Vietnam: effects on growth and feed utilization. Aquaculture Nutrition, 17, 297-305. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2010.00763.x).
Benavente, G. P., &Gatesoupe, F. J. (1988). Bacteria associated with cultured rotifers and Artemia are detrimental to larval turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L. Aquacultural Engineering, 7, 289-293. (DOI:10.1016/0144-8609 (88) 90028-3 ).
Lavens, L., & Sorgeloos, P. (1996). Manual on the production and use of live food for aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, vol. 361. FAO, Rome, 295 pp. (ISSN: 0429-9345).
Barclay, W., & Zeller, S. (1996). Nutritional enhancement of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in rotifers and Artemia Nauplii by feeding spray-dried Schizochytrium sp. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 27, 314-322. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.1996.tb00614.x).
DeKoven, D. L., Nunez, J. M., Lester, S. M., Conklin, D. E., Marty, G. D., Parker, L. M. & Hinton, D. E. (1992). A purified diet for medaka (Oryzias latipes): refining a fish model for toxicological research. LaboratoryAnimal Science, 42, 180-189. (PMID:1318453).
Santos M. M., Micael J., Carvalho A. P., Morabito R., Booy P., Massanisso P., Lamoree M. & Reis-Henriques M. A. (2006). Estrogens counteract the masculinizing effect of tributyltin in zebrafish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 142, 151-155. (DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2005.11.014).
Goodwin, N., Karp, N. A., Blackledge, S., Clark, B., Keeble, R., Kovacs, C., Murray, K. N., Price, M., Thompson, P., and & Bussell, J. (2016). Standardized welfare terms for the zebrafish community. Zebrafish, 13 (S1), S 164-168. (DOI: 10.1089/zeb.2016. 1248).
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of Official Analytical Chemists International (16th ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA. (ISSN: 1060-3271)
Bligh, E. G., & Dyer, W. J. (1959). A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian journal of biochemistry and physiology, 37, 911-917. (DOI: 10.1139/y59-099 ).
Bundit, J. (2008). The nutrition and feeding of a native Thai species, the marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus), involving on-farm and experimental studies. PhD Dissertation, University of Stirling, Scotland. pp. 92-95. (URI: http://hdl.handle.net/ 1893/256).
Schulz, C., Huber, M., Ogunji, J. and Rennert, B. 2008. Effects of varying dietary protein to lipid ratios on growth performance and body composition of juvenile pike perch (Sander lucioperca). Aquaculture Nutrition, 14: 166-173. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2007.00516.x).
López, L. M., Durazo, E., Viana, M. T., Drawbridge, M., & Bureau, D. P. (2009). Effect of dietary lipid levels on performance, body composition and fatty acid profile of juvenile white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis. Aquaculture, 289, 101-105. (DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.01.003).
Rahimnejad, S., Bang, I. C., Park, J. Y., Sade, A., Choi, J., & Lee, S. M. (2015). Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of juvenile hybrid grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus× E. lanceolatus. Aquaculture, 446, 283-289. (DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.05.019).
Sargent, J. R., Henderson, R. J. & Tocher, D. R. (2003). The lipids. Fish Nutrition (ed. by Halver, J. E. & Hardy, R. W.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA., pp. 181-257. (ISBN: 978-0-12-319652-1 )
Lee, S. M., Kim, K. D. (2001). Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on the growth, protein utilization and body composition of juvenile masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou Brevoort). Aquaculture Research, 32, 39-45. (DOI: 10.1046/j.1355-557x. 2001.00004.x).
BrusléJ., & Anadon G. G. (1996). The structure and function of fish liver, Fish morphology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, pp. 77-93. (ISBN: 90 5410 289 6)
Caballero, M. J., Izquierdo, M. S., Kjørsvik, E., Fernandez, A. J., & Rosenlund, G. (2004). Histological alterations in the liver of sea bream, Sparus aurata L., caused by short-or long-term feeding with vegetable oils. Recovery of normal morphology after feeding fish oil as the sole lipid source. Journal of Fish Diseases, 27, 531-541. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2004.00572.x).
Hu, L., Yun, B., Xue, M., Wang, J., Wu X., Zheng, Y., & Han, F. (2013). Effects of fish meal quality and fish meal substitution by animal protein blend on growth performance, flesh quality and liver histology of Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Aquaculture, 372, 52-61. (DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.10.025).
Fernandes Helena, Peres Helena, and Carvalho António Paulo. Zebrafish. December 2016, 13: 548-555. (DOI: 10.1089/zeb.2016.1303)
Yong, A. S. K., Ooi, S. Y., & Shapawi, R. (2013). The utilization of soybean meal in formulated diet for marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5 (11), 139. (DOI: 10.5539/jas.v5n11p139)
Sweilum, M. A., Abdella, M. M., & Salah El-Din, S. A. (2005). Effect of dietary protein-energy levels and fish initial sizes on growth rate, development and production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Aquaculture research, 36, 1414-1421. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2005.01362.x).
Seppänen, E. (2008). Relationships between metabolic rate, growth rate, smolting and parasite infection in salmonid fishes. University of Joensuu press, Joensuu, Finland, pp.7. (ISSN: 1457-2486).
Rosenlund, G., Karlsen, Ø., Tveit, K., Mangor-Jensen, A., & Hemre, G. I. (2004). Effect of feed composition and feeding frequency on growth, feed utilization and nutrient retention in juvenile Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Aquaculture Nutrition, 10, 371-378. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2004.00312.x).
Kim, S. S., & Lee, K. J. (2009). Dietary protein requirement of juvenile tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes). Aquaculture, 287, 219-222. (DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008. 10.021).
Gasparini, C., Simmons, L. W., Beveridge, M., & Evans, J. P. (2010). Sperm swimming velocity predicts competitive fertilization success in the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri. PLoS One, 5, e12146. (DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012146)
Meinelt, T., Schultz, C., Worth, M., Kurzinger, H. & Steinberg, C. (2000) Correlation of diets high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with high growth rate in Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comp. Med., 50, 43–45. (PMID:10987667)
Jaya-Ram, A., Kuah, M. K., Lim, P. S., Kolkovski, S. & ShuChien, A. C. (2008) Influence of dietary HUFA levels on reproductive performance, tissue fatty acid profile and desaturase and elongase mRNAs expression in female zebrafish Danio rerio. Aquaculture, 277, 275–281. (DOI:1016/j.aquaculture.2008.02.027)
Browse journals by subject